Evo Devo

Evolutionary development - at the biological interface between genetic regulatory mechanisms and biological evolution.


Intronic splicing enhancer:

A novel intronic cis element, ISE/ISS-3, regulates rat fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 splicing through activation of an upstream exon and repression of a downstream exon containing a noncanonical branch point sequence.
"The selection of a cassette exon for splicing is further determined by RNA cis elements generally referred to as exonic or intronic splicing enhancers (ESEs or ISEs) and exonic or intronic splicing silencers (ESSs or ISSs). For the most part, it appears that these cis elements function by binding to splicing regulatory proteins that stimulate or inhibit exon definition. Most alternatively spliced cassette exons contain more than one such regulatory cis element in the exon and/or in the flanking introns, and as such, combinatorial models of splicing regulation have been proposed whereby inclusion or skipping of an exon is determined by the net activity of several proteins associated with these elements (7, 46). Studies of numerous alternatively spliced transcripts support such models of combinatorial control (7, 46).

A particularly robust example of regulation by a mammalian tissue-specific splicing factor is that seen with the neural-specific Nova proteins, Nova-1 and Nova-2, that are expressed exclusively in distinct subsets of neurons and that may be sufficient to achieve brain-specific alternative splicing of several transcripts (52). It is likely that the splicing outcome for many alternatively spliced mammalian transcripts results from the combinatorial effects of cell-type-specific factors as well as differential expression of other regulatory factors." Hovhannisyan RH,
Carstens RP. A Novel Intronic cis Element, ISE/ISS-3, Regulates Rat Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2 Splicing through Activation of an Upstream Exon and Repression of a Downstream Exon Containing a Noncanonical Branch Point Sequence. (Free Full Text Article) Molecular and Cellular Biology, January 2005, p. 250-263, Vol. 25, No. 1

A Non-sequence-specific double-stranded RNA structural element regulates splicing of two mutually exclusive exons of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2). [J Biol Chem. 2002] PMID: 12393912
An intronic splicing silencer causes skipping of the IIIb exon of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 through involvement of polypyrimidine tract binding protein. [Mol Cell Biol. 2000] PMID: 10982855
A stem structure in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 transcripts mediates cell-type-specific splicing by approximating intronic control elements. [Mol Cell Biol. 2003] PMID: 14645542
Characterization of sequences and mechanisms through which ISE/ISS-3 regulates FGFR2 splicing. [Nucleic Acids Res. 2006] PMID: 16410617
Characterization of the intronic splicing silencers flanking FGFR2 exon IIIb. [J Biol Chem. 2005] PMID: 15684416
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